Chromosome 3p21 .1 locus contains common genetic risk for bipolar disorder One of the primary issues in psychiatric genetics offers been to replicate results across large studies. Scientists at King's University London, Institute of Psychiatry have finally performed among the largest ever genetic replication studies of bipolar affective disorder, with 28,000 subjects recruited from 36 different research centers. Their results provide compelling proof that the chromosome 3p21.1 locus contains a common genetic risk for bipolar disorder, the PBRM1 gene.

Chatzimeletiou and colleagues in Greece and Britain selected 185 cleavage to blastocyst stage human embryos and treated them with markers in order to visualise the microtubules, which are participating with motion actions within the cell, and spindles. All the blastocyst stage embryos got at least one normal spindle, but 23 percent of blastocysts had an irregular spindle as well as the normal types. At the earlier cleavage to morula levels more abnormalities were seen . Chromosome reduction was also observed in 16 percent of embryos and even though this was frequently connected with unusual spindle configurations, some in any other case normal spindles were associated with chromosome loss also. Chatzimeletiou. Each cell contains one centrosome that moves and duplicates to opposing poles in order to form a bipolar spindle.